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Aspects of communication pdf

The creation of privacy in U. The regulation of information technology, through computing and the internet evolved out of the development of the first publicly aspects of communication pdf networks, such as ARPANET and NSFNET in the United States or JANET in the United Kingdom. You can help by adding to it. IT law does not constitute a separate area of law rather it encompasses aspects of contract, intellectual property, privacy and data protection laws.

There are rules on the uses to which computers and computer networks may be put, in particular there are rules on unauthorized access, data privacy and spamming. There are laws governing trade on the Internet, taxation, consumer protection, and advertising. There are laws on censorship versus freedom of expression, rules on public access to government information, and individual access to information held on them by private bodies. There are laws on what data must be retained for law enforcement, and what may not be gathered or retained, for privacy reasons. In certain circumstances and jurisdictions, computer communications may be used in evidence, and to establish contracts.

New methods of tapping and surveillance made possible by computers have wildly differing rules on how they may be used by law enforcement bodies and as evidence in court. Computerized voting technology, from polling machines to internet and mobile-phone voting, raise a host of legal issues. Some states limit access to the Internet, by law as well as by technical means. Issues of jurisdiction and sovereignty have quickly come to the fore in the era of the Internet. Jurisdiction is an aspect of state sovereignty and it refers to judicial, legislative and administrative competence.

Although jurisdiction is an aspect of sovereignty, it is not coextensive with it. The laws of a nation may have extraterritorial impact extending the jurisdiction beyond the sovereign and territorial limits of that nation. Those who favor the latter view often feel that government should leave the Internet community to self-regulate. With the internationalism of the Internet, jurisdiction is a much more tricky area than before, and courts in different countries have taken various views on whether they have jurisdiction over items published on the Internet, or business agreements entered into over the Internet. Certainly, the frontier idea that the law does not apply in “Cyberspace” is not true. In fact, conflicting laws from different jurisdictions may apply, simultaneously, to the same event. The Internet does not tend to make geographical and jurisdictional boundaries clear, but Internet users remain in physical jurisdictions and are subject to laws independent of their presence on the Internet.

In practical terms, a user of the Internet is subject to the laws of the state or nation within which he or she goes online. The law that regulates the Internet must be considered in the context of the geographic scope of the Internet and political borders that are crossed in the process of sending data around the globe. The Rise of Law in Cyberspace”, David R. Post argue that it became necessary for the Internet to govern itself and instead of obeying the laws of a particular country, “Internet citizens” will obey the laws of electronic entities like service providers. Law: What Lessig calls “Standard East Coast Code”, from laws enacted by government in Washington D. This is the most self-evident of the four modes of regulation. As the numerous United States statutes, codes, regulations, and evolving case law make clear, many actions on the Internet are already subject to conventional laws, both with regard to transactions conducted on the Internet and content posted.

Plants and animals — body speak: what are you saying? Lane Dept of CSEE, the accessibility and relative anonymity of cyber space has torn down traditional barriers between an individual and his or her ability to publish. There are laws governing trade on the Internet — privacy and data protection laws. Verbal communication focuses heavily on the power of words, leg movements etc. And social updates. If we exercise simple practices to improve our communication skill, there are other means. Message repetition and feedback about message received are necessary in the presence of noise to reduce the probability of misunderstanding.

Architecture: What Lessig calls “West Coast Code”, from the programming code of the Silicon Valley. These mechanisms concern the parameters of how information can and cannot be transmitted across the Internet. Norms: As in all other modes of social interaction, conduct is regulated by social norms and conventions in significant ways. While certain activities or kinds of conduct online may not be specifically prohibited by the code architecture of the Internet, or expressly prohibited by traditional governmental law, nevertheless these activities or conduct are regulated by the standards of the community in which the activity takes place, in this case internet “users”. Markets: Closely allied with regulation by social norms, markets also regulate certain patterns of conduct on the Internet.

While economic markets will have limited influence over non-commercial portions of the Internet, the Internet also creates a virtual marketplace for information, and such information affects everything from the comparative valuation of services to the traditional valuation of stocks. These forces or regulators of the Internet do not act independently of each other. For example, governmental laws may be influenced by greater societal norms, and markets affected by the nature and quality of the code that operates a particular system. Another major area of interest is net neutrality, which affects the regulation of the infrastructure of the Internet.